Tuesday, 28 April 2015

How Do Our Politicians Represent Us



Finding information about the backgrounds of parliamentary candidates is not the simplest of tasks. Luckily, research on this sort of rare data has already been made. In this text, Veera Voutilainen returns to the theme of the Institute’s discussion event of 9 April in the Finnish Parliament, and draws together work comparing socio-demographic data of MPs from the UK and Finland.

Only a couple of weeks apart from the UK’s upcoming election of 7 May, Finland held general elections, too. On Sunday 19 April Finns made their way to the polling stations, and voted the Centre Party known for its conservative values to victory. The eurosceptic, anti-immigration Finns Party formerly known as the True Finns got placed second.


This Spring really makes us think about whether we should all be interested in knowing more about people who represent us – and why. Dr Jennifer Hudson, researcher in political behaviour, points out that the question brings us back to some of our very fundamental rights.
“I think it’s a basic question of democracy that you know who the people standing for parliamentary representatives might be”, she says.
Hudson is currently working on an ambitious joint project between Birkbeck, University of London and University College London, along with her colleague Dr Rosie Campbell. Their team has investigated biographical, socio-demographic and electoral data on candidates and MPs over an extensive period of time: from 1945 to 2015. The aim of the project is to open a wide amount of data for anyone to explore.
Sadly, there’s nothing new about the growth in lack of trust and disengagement among citizens around politics: according to Hudson, a feeling of alienation of an average person from the political class has overshadowed British politics for the last 25 years. But what if people knew more about the ones who wish to represent them?


Increasing diversity
“I think what’s important is having increased diversity – in terms of what it signals to the electors”, Hudson says. Indeed, the collected socio-demographic data exploring age, gender and ethnic background does show increasing diversity among the candidates in the British general elections.
“We’re starting from a much higher base in terms of the candidates available that come from black and minority ethnic (BME) backgrounds,” she says. “There’s some real differences across the parties: Conservatives have selected 14 percent candidates from BME backgrounds. That’s a real effort from the party to widen its diversity in terms of the candidates.”
What comes to diversity in terms of gender equality, 2015 gives women better chances to find candidates they can relate to.
“Historically parties would select women candidates and minority ethnic candidates, but they wouldn’t be given any kind of possibility of being won. What we see this year is that Labour Party has put more than half of their women on winnable seats,” Hudson tells.


Winnable seat means an electoral district, where a certain party knows it will win. In the British electoral system, the parliament consists of 650 electoral districts. From every district, only one candidate who gets the highest amount of votes can reach the parliament. Therefore, the parties tend to nominate their top candidates in such electoral districts, where it’s known they will get voted.


How electoral systems treat women differently
Hudson’s and Campbell’s project shows just under 30 % of all the candidates in British general elections this Spring are female. Differences between parties, however, are significant: While 37 % of the Green party’s candidates are female, the real outlier is the euro-sceptic Independence party Ukip with a narrow 13 % share of female candidates. Although, these numbers do not tell everything:


“The party that is really streets ahead is the Labour Party, if you look at the seats that are likely to be won,” Rosie Campbell points out.


She refers to the all women shortlists (AWS) that Labour has used since 1990s. “A controversial but effective way to improve women’s representation in politics,” as Campbell puts it. The majority of British people consider all women shortlists anti-democratic. Of course, it would be nice if they weren’t needed. But by far the gender quota does seem to work.
Overall, women have a more realistic chances to access parliament than before. Hudson refers to a significant increase in winnable seats for women this year – considering the very low baseline.
“On the other side, even if we do come away with 30 % women MPs, a lot of the talk in the UK will be about how that is a significant achievement – how we’ve made quite a lot of progress. The danger is how women are 53 % of the population, and so we’re still some way off really getting to kind of gender balance in the parliament. ”
In comparison to Finland, female candidates in the UK have had less possibilities to access the parliament, as they do not have the same kind of an open party list system as Finland does. According to Dr Erkka Railo, researcher with the Centre for Parliamentary Studies in Turku, the electoral system has a significant impact on what kind of candidates become elected.
“In the UK the electoral system influences in how women become clearly under-represented”, he says. “But then in Finland, the candidate’s personal election budget seems to have more impact: the wealthiest candidates tend to become elected, which influences the overall formation of the parliament.”


Significant changes overtime
Railo points out that the educational level of the Finnish candidates has risen significantly since the Second World War – as well as the share of women. Nevertheless, the MP’s do not look very much like the people they represent: the share of members representing the age group between 40-60 is clearly over-represented. In addition to that, a Finnish MP is usually about four times wealthier than an average Finn.
As in the UK, parliamentary groups in Finland differ from each other in terms of gender structure, education as well as income level. Railo compresses some of the major differences:
“The Green Party has the most highly educated MPs, the Finns party the lowest. The Finns party had the lowest female representation – while Social Democrats and Swedish People’s Party had most women. The income level was lowest at the Finns party, Left Alliance, Green Party and Christian Democrats. The wealthiest candidates came from the Centre Party and the National Coalition Party.”


In the UK, things are getting exciting. Maybe 7 May will bring more people chances to find someone from the parliament who they could actually have more in common with.


Rosie Campbell, Jennifer Hudson and Erkka Railo met in Helsinki in an open discussion event organized by the Institute on 9 April. The event was part of the Finnish Institute’s Society programme, directed by Antti Halonen.
Follow Jennifer Hudson’s and Rosie Campbell’s UK Parliamentary Candidates project here.


The writer of this text is the Institute’s new communications intern.

25 comments:

karan sharma said...

great post ! webpage for my singing monsters hack to achive coins ,gems , breed new monsters and lot more info here

jual alat sex said...

alat pembesar penis
Alat Pembesar Penis
vakum Pembesar Penis
celan Pembesar Penis
alat terapi Pembesar Penis

obat kuat sex
obat kuat
obat kuat sex
Obat kuat seks
obat kuat tahan lama
obat kuat sex tahan lama
obat kuat seks tahan lama
Obat sex tahan lama

semuthitam said...

awesome article, nice blog....
jaket anime jaket anime murah jaket anime malang toyota malang harga toyota malang toyota malang sutoyo rumah tanah di malang info rumah tanah di malang alat bantu sex penghilang tato - penyubur sperma suplemen fitnes malang suplemen fitnes malang surabaya suplemen fitnes malang suplemen fitnes malang surabaya Bata Ringan Bata Ringan Surabaya Jual Bata Ringan Tas Murah Tas Murah Jakarta Tas Murah Laptop

amazon said...

I assure this would be beneficial for most of the people.free amazon gift card codes

amazon said...

I really appreciate this wonderful post that you have provided for us.hay day hack

Dokter Virginia said...

Cara Menghilangkan Tatto. Obat Penghilang Tatto.
Agen Tattonox Indonesia. Tattonox.
Harga Murah Obat Penghilang Tatto. Harga Tattonox.
Cara Membedakan Tattonox Asli Palsu. Tattonox Asli Palsu.
Hasil Memakai Tattonox. Testimoni Tattonox.
Obat Penghilang Tatto Tradisional.
Obat Penghilang Tatto Permanen.
Obat Penghilang Tatto Alami.
Vmenplus Asli Germany
Alat Bantu Sex

Kathleen Rueb said...

Great information! I had been searching for this kind of good quality article in several sites. I am very grateful since I could find such an awesome blog post. Keep sharing!
college paper writing service

bibie kuat said...

awesome post :
[v] vmenplus
[v] vmenplus asli
[v] grosir vimax
[v] cuci sofa
[v] grosir kosmetik
[v] jasa seo murah
very nice share ^^

Janice said...

Excellent! Thanks! writers at work the essay website classyessaywriter.com will help you out in case of essay writing trouble.

Vuktor said...

After reading this article I would like to advice something. dissertation editing service - http://clevereditor.com/blog/10-tips-for-dissertation-editing-every-student-should-know

Peccatum said...

“Historically parties would select women candidates and minority ethnic candidates, but they wouldn’t be given any kind of possibility of being won. What we see this year is that Labour Party has put more than half of their women on winnable seats,” Hudson tells. best online casino

Pembesarpenis Vimax said...

http://pembesarpenisvimax.hol.es/obat-pembesar-penis/vigrx-plus-pembesar-penis-herbal/

Gadis idaman said...

- obat kuat
- jual obat kuat
- obat kuat maXman
- obat tahan lama
- prokomil spray
- pembesar penis
- obat pembesar penis KLG
- viagra usa


vimax
pembesar penis
obat pembesar penis


- viagra usa
- viagra
- Fakta viagra
- seksualitas


vimax
vimax asli
vimax canada


- obat pembesar penis
- obat kuat sony
- obat perangsang
- alat bantu sex

Kencana Pasutri said...

your post is very interesting for see, I am personally very fond with your handwriting on this page.


info

Toko Alat bantu sex
Vagina silikon bergetar
Vagina tabung senter bergetar
Boneka fullbody
Vagina silikon getar goyang suara
pinggul silikon berkelamin vagina
Condom penis berotot
Alat pemanjang penis
vagina tempel
Kondom badak
Kondom berduri
Kondom pemanjang
Pelicin vagina-penis mainan
Ring penis
kondom penis silikon mutiara
Vagina silikon
Vakum, Alat pembesar dan pemanjang penis
Alat bantu sex

Gadis idaman said...

- obat kuat
- jual obat kuat
- obat kuat maXman
- obat tahan lama
- pembesar penis
- obat pembesar penis KLG
- viagra usa


vimax
pembesar penis
obat pembesar penis


- viagra usa
- viagra asli
- viagra usa asli
- viagra
- obat pembesar penis


vimax
vimax asli
vimax canada


- vimax
- pembesar penis
- obat pembesar penis
- obat pembesar


obat pembesar
obat pembesar penis
pembesar penis
maxman
maxman asli
jual maxman asli


- obat pembesar penis
- obat kuat sony
- obat perangsang
- alat bantu sex
- seksualitas


cerita sex
cerita dewasa
kumpulan cerita sex
kumpulan cerita dewasa

David Clarke said...

We recommend you better appeal to someone who has time to help instead of making even more mistakes in a rush! It is high time to do our paper work good on time and of high quality! Online writers that have enough time and experience for making perfect essays are the best assistance for the busiest students!

Edna Jonas said...

Good to read! Thanks for describing the topic in an impressive and convincing manner. Please keep on sharing! Dissertation writing service

citra kosmetik said...

thank you for sharing
klg pembesar penis
harga vimax
vigrx plus asli
harga pro extender
vakum big long
minyak pembesar penis
vimax oil

viagra asli
obat kuat
levitra asli
cialis
cialis asli
nangen
stud cream
maxman tablet
maximum powerful
procomil spray

spanish fly
perangsang serbuk

alat pembesar payudara
obat pembesar payudara
semenax

alat bantu sex pria
alat bantu sex wanita
alat bantu sex
alat bantu wanita
alat bantu pria
alat bantu sex

vmenplus
vmenplus asli
harga vmenplus asli
sony tablet
cream kuda hitam

angelacooper839 said...

Only a couple of weeks apart from the UK’s upcoming election of 7 May, Finland held general elections, too. buy reaction papers

Loren Hill said...

Hello! Good post! I know that online academic writing helped me a lot and can do it for you too just visit this website.

Wendy Smith said...

You have discussed quite an interesting topic. Most of all I liked how you explained the way electoral systems treat women. If you need to get more information about this topic, I recommend you to buy essays right here http://best-essays-writers.org and get the qualified paper

Chenzhen 20160303chenzhen said...

yeezy boost
burberry outlet canada
tiffany and co outlet
christian louboutin uk
instyler max
louis vuitton bags
asics gel kayano
michael kors outlet online
michael kors outlet online
oakley sunglasses
pandora jewelry outlet
michael kors outlet online
canada goose jackets
timberland boots outlet
ghd hair dryer
adidas shoes
hollister clothing
louis vuitton pas cher
oakley sunglasses outlet
nike huarache
adidas superstar white
hermes outlet
tiffany jewelry outlet
coach outlet online
abercrombie outlet
omega
black timberland boots
nike running shoes
armani exchange
michael kors outlet online
ray ban outlet
coach outlet online
kate spade uk
north face outlet
nike tn pas cher
nike huarache black
versace sunglasses
kobe bryant shoes
nike blazer
stan smith adidas
chenzhen2016618

Asfan ghazali6 said...

Thanks for
tips and information
NICE JOB

dereck naveed said...

I would like to let all know that the size of your Penis really matters in your relationship or marriage. I got married to my wife about 1 month after we met on a photo studio, we lived happily for the first 3 months of our marriage until i and my wife started having quarrels at home because i couldn't satisfy her on bed with my little penis. Actually my penis was very small, it measured about 4.5 inch long on erection and i am 39 years old. My wife said it was forbidden by the women of this world. My wife started sleeping with other men outside. Sometimes i will return from work without finding my wife at home and whenever i call or ask her where she was, she will always snub at me and sometimes just tell me to go get a larger dick. All this continued for a long time and it hurt me so much that i was at the edge of breaking up on the marriage till when i read about a doctor called DR. OYAMA online. I never thought i could smile and be in a happy marriage again if not for the help of DR.OYAMA. I got the doctors Emails: droyamasolutiontemple@gmail.com. on the internet and i emailed him, and he got back to me with some encouraging words, he got me some herbs which i use for just 8 days and i began to feel the enlargement of my penis, and without surgery. This went on for a little period of about 10 days and to my surprise my wife keeps screaming that she love my big dick now. Now my wife no longer cheat on me, and my penis is now about10.5 inches long on erection and off course very large round. And now my wife uses breasts, hips and bums enlargement. I and my wife are very happy for the help rendered to me by DR. OYAMA, and i want to say a big thanks to Doctor for the help. You can contact the Doctor now on his Email: droyamasolutiontemple@gmail.com Am thankful to the doctor for helping me. you can call him whatsapp +2348108264684..

mbak watik said...

http://obatpembesarpenisjogja.com/
http://cialisjogja.com/
http://obatdietjogja.com/
http://obatjogja.com/
http://tokoobatkuatjogja.com/
http://viagramakasar.com/
http://obatkuatblora.com/
http://tokoobatmagelang.com/
http://www.tokocaesar.com/
http://pembesarpenismagelang.com/
http://viagramagelang.com/
http://hargaviagra.com/
http://obatstroke.id/